Wednesday, 30 November 2011

How to Make Fruit smoothies in Kenya

Today more people are increasingly health conscious globally.
Fresh fruits are generally rich in vitamin C, ant-oxidants, fiber, and phyto-chemicals. Fresh fruits protect the body from stress and diseases. Here below are exciting fruit smoothie recipes. Make delicious fruit smoothies at home and for business.
Materials
1pc stainless steel fruit knife
1pc can opener
1set plastic measuring spoon
1pc plastic measuring cup
1pc chopping board
3pcs plastic bowl
1pc spatula

Equipments
One unit unbreakable blender
1 unit kitchen scale
1unit Refrigerator with ice cooler chest (optional)

Packaging
Plastic cups
Straws

Examples of fruits which you can use to make fruit smoothies are:-
  • Ripe Bananas
  • Avocados
  • Melons
  • Lemons
  • Oranges
  • Strawberry
  • Mangoes
  • Pineapple
  • Papaya
  • Apple

Morning Glory Fruit Smoothie recipe


Ingredients:
2 cups ripe Bananas (peeled and sliced)
2 cups Strawberries (sliced)
2 cups Pineapple or Papaya (peeled and chopped)     
1 cup Apples (chopped and peeled)
1/2 cup Ice cubes(optional)
1 tsp Honey(optional)

In a blender mix a combination of ripe bananas, strawberries
 Pineapples or papayas, apples, ice cubes and honey.
  • Blend together until smooth
  • Serve immediately for breakfast or any preferred time of the day.
  • Enjoy the great delicate taste!

Tips for realization of your business dream in Kenya

A Business plan development is crucial for a successful farm business. A farm business plan is the road-map to a successful agriculture business. Furthermore most successful businesses are born out of a dream, a hobby, a vision, a passion or a drive. Every human being has a dream (some of them from child hood), But until you do something about the dream it remains a mere dream and never materializes. I can almost hear you asking, “What should I do with my dream? Don’t worry. You are in the right place as this article will teach you how to be successful in business. The components of a business plan are discussed below:-
  1. Write down the dream in details: The dream is the most important thing in your business, as it will drive your passion and motivate you to achieve it. The dream shows you where you are taking your business and it will keep you going when things get hard; therefore never loose focus of the dream.
  2. Identify the opportunity what human problems will your business solve? Or define the reason for existence of your business. A business must offer solution to a human problem or need for it to succeed. Therefore it goes without saying that every human problem is a business opportunity.
  3. Set simple achievable targets: write down what you need to do to make your dream come true. This should be simple achievable targets also known as SMART objectives.
       
S
Specific
The targets should be simple and clear
M
Measurable
Quantify the targets to enable measuring of results
A
Attainable 
Set a measure that you can deliver as you pursue your dream
R
Realistic
The target must be practical in relation to available resources
T
Time-frame
Set a period within which you need to achieve the dream

 4.  Decide on the form of business ownership: e.g. Family business, sole proprietorship, partnership, limited company etc
  1. Identify your products or service which you will offer the market.
  2. Conduct a simple market survey or research. Research need not be complicated and it involves:-
    • Asking the right questions.
    • Getting information.
    • Decision making based on the information.

Important Questions in market survey
  1. What market am I targeting?or Who will be my major customers? e.g supermarkets,  school children, people in estates.  
  2.  What are the customer’s preferences or what are they looking for. what are their needs?Remember people will only buy what satisfies their existing need.
  3. Is there any competition in the area for the product / service which I want to offer?
  4. What are the strengths and weaknesses of competitors? take advantage of the competitors weaknesses.
  5.  How much must I sell per month and at what price to break even and make profit?
a)      7. Write down the marketing plan for your dream business: Marketing is a fight to have your product or service as the preferred choice of your customers. How you carry out your marketing determines how far you will go in sales. The marketing plan is your master plan and it will be consulted more than any other document.
    The key items that you must include in your marketing plan are as follows:-
    • The pricing of your product or service: The price should recover the cost of production and earn a profit. A profit of between 20%-50% can be earned depending on the purchasing power of your customers, the price of competitors, and the inflation rate.
    • Sale tactic.
    • What will you do with spoiled products / returns?
    • How will you advertise your product /service? e.g. through radio, newspaper, word of mouth.
    • How will you deliver the product / service to the customers? e.g. bicycles, vans, internet or short message service can be used.
    • Remember that the market is dynamic and the answers to these questions may change or require modification during implementation.

    Financial plan: This section of your business plan is fed by all the above covered sections. Financial plan is about where the money will come from, how much you will need, what your income and expenditure will be, and by when you will have recovered the capital invested in the business.This section requires at least knowledge in basic book keeping skills and high level of accountability. Finally a business plan can help you get additional financing from financial institutions and/ or partners. Consult an expert after you have written down the basics of your business plan, in order to have a comprehensive business plan made for you. Remember a good business plan is the key to a successful business dream.

    Thursday, 24 November 2011

    Types of Farm Business Records

    Farm business records keeping refer to documentation of events, business or news that occurs on the farm, and it is a crucial step in the success of every farming business. Farm records keeping provides the farmer with a tool to help in farm planning, farm management decision making, and projection of future profitability of the enterprise, with an aim of maximizing farm profit. Therefore three main reasons for keeping good records are:
    1) Income tax reporting
    2) Obtaining credit
    3) Management tool

    There are various types of farm records which include:-
    1)      Daily farm records: These are records of important events and activities that take place on the farm every day. These records serve for future planning of the farm activities. Example of  a daily farm record is shown below:-

                                 
    Date
    Activity
    1st October 2011
    200 broilers were sold
    25th October 2011
    Carrots plot was weeded
    17th November 2011
    Fish pond was stocked

    2)      Records of farm implements and equipments: as in the example shown below

    Date of purchase
    Type of Equipment
    Quantity
    Description/ remarks
    3rd October 2011
    Knapsack sprayer
    1
    Economy brand

    3)      Record of agricultural inputs: These shows type and amounts of farm inputs such as seeds, fertilizers etc .The farmer records amount purchased, amount used and amount left for each month.

    4)      Records of livestock and livestock products: Each type of livestock needs different records. Milk records and eggs records are good examples of livestock products records.


    5)      Records of animal feeds: These records show the types and quantity of feeds used and the amount of feed remaining in the store. an example of animal feed record is shown below:-

    Date
    Type of
    feed
    Quantity
    In store
    Quantity
    Bought
    Unit
    Price
    Total
    Cost
    Quantity
    Used
    Balance
    In store









    6)      Production records: These records document everything that is produced on the farm. They are mostly prepared on weekly basis which add up to monthly and annual records. These records monitor the value of the farm produce and measure progress in production and enable individual farmers to access farm credits. An example of production record is shown below.

    Date
    Type of Produce
    Quantity
    Value ( Ksh)
    5th September 2011
    Chicken broilers
    50 kg
    12,500
    3rd November 2011
    Green peas
    20 kg
    1,000
    10th December
    Watermelon
    100 kg
    2,000

    7)    Records for farm use: These records show the dates for land preparation, planting of different plots, sale or utilization of produce and rotation programs. They also include difficulties encountered on the farm such as disease and pest outbreaks.
    8)  Others:-  
    Farm expenditure records: Farm inputs used  
    Workers records:Salaries and other payments 
    Vehicle records: petrol, oil used and any repairs




    Growing Bulb Onions in Kenya

    Bulb onions growing is particularly suited to small-scale farmers and youth  in most countries as they can be grown all the year round particularly where irrigation is available. In the tropics only short day or day neutral onions plants will form bulb onions. Some bulb onions varieties commonly grown in Africa are:
    Onion, tomato, cabbage salad
    Red Creole -This is a popular high yielding variety of bulb onions which is in high demand due to its good keeping quality, mainly producing single bulb onions from transplants, and they  are red, flat-round and with a pungent taste.
    Red Tropicana F1 Hybrid- this produces large, red, thick flat bulb onions with firm pungent taste. It is high producing and needs high levels of management.
    Bombay Red- Is are bulb onions variety for dry and warmer conditions producing small to medium sized bulbs, which are globe shaped, purplish red and pungent.
    Yellow Granex FI Hybrid- Granex F1 hybrid is an early maturing as well as high yielding variety with attractive, thick flat bulb onion and thin yellow scales. It attracts high market prices due to its uniform shape, size and good storage quality.Bulb onions plants require cooler weather during the early stages of growth with a dry atmosphere and moderately high temperature for bulb formation & maturation. Bulb onion plants thrive well in warm to hot climates of 15-30°C, with Optimum temperatures for plant development ranging between 13 and 24°C.Bulb onions plants require light well drained soils with a PH of 6-7 and high fertility. Bulb onions plants need a substantial amount of water at bulb stage, but excess moisture must be avoided throughout the growing season. Irrigation is necessary especially on light sandy soils and can either be overhead or on drip irrigation. Stop irrigating the plants 2-3 weeks before harvesting, or when 20-30% of the tops collapse.

    Bulb onion plants are most commonly propagated using seeds which are first sown in a nursery to enable selection of strong healthy seedlings for transplanting. The seed rate is 2-3 kg per ha.
    To make the nursery prepare raised beds a metre wide and work in plenty of well decomposed manure as well as rock phosphate. Make drills about 15 cm apart, sow the seeds and cover lightly with soil and mulch. Irrigate the bed liberally for the first 10 days and continue watering the seeds regularly. Germination of seeds takes about 21 days after which the mulch is removed and used to make a shade above the tender plants. Transplanting of seedlings is done about 6-8 weeks after sowing, when the seedlings have pencil thick base and a height of approximately1 5cm. The ultimate yield of bulb onions is determined by the number of leaves that are formed prior to bulb formation; therefore seedlings should have 3 to 5 well formed leaves at transplanting time.  Two weeks before transplanting reduce the shade to improve seedling survival rate in the field.

    Incorporate well decomposed manure into the soil, at a rate of 25 to 40t/ha to obtain vigorously growing plants. Avoid application of fresh manure to the plants, as it will cause development of thick necks and excess leaves at the expense of bulb formation. Transplanting of seedlings is done in cool weather either in the morning or evening. Water the nursery bed thoroughly for ease of uprooting seedling for transplanting, and then make rows in the field 30cm [12’’] apart. Uproot the healthy strong seedlings leaving the weak seedlings to strengthen for planting latter. Prune the roots for better plants establishment. Plant the seedlings at a spacing of 10cm [4’’] within the row and 13mm [1/2’’] deep, and then firm up the surrounding soil. Irrigate the field before and after transplanting seedlings or alternatively transplant seedlings during the rains when the soil is moist.

    There are many pest and diseases that attack onions plants some of which are onion thrips, leaf miners, purple blotch, bacterial soft rot, leaf blight and downy mildew. These can be controlled using cultural control methods which include use of disease free seeds, harvesting mature bulbs only to avoid rotting in store, uprooting and burning isolated diseased plants, keeping the field free of weed plants to avoid alternative host, crop rotation and field hygiene,
    maintaining good air circulation during curing, packaging and storage of bulb onions. Chemical control is an option when infestation is severe.The field should be kept free of weed plants throughout the growing season Harvesting takes place 90-150 days after transplanting seedlings and bulb onions are ready for harvesting when the leaves collapse, or alternatively the leaves can be bent over and left to dry for 10-12 days. Pull mature bulb onions manually from the soil and cure them in the sun for 10-14 days with the bulbs covered by the leaves. Cut dried leaves 3.5cm [1.5 inches] from the stem and remove the roots, then grade bulbs according to size & quality. Pack in jute or net bags for storage or immediate sale. Yields of Bulb onions can go up to up to 20 tons per hectare.For more information read 


    1. http://www.wazua.co.ke/forum.aspx?g=posts&t=19825



    Wednesday, 16 November 2011

    REARING RABBITS IN AFRICA

    Rearing rabbits is a suitable meat producing agribusiness activity among the youth in Africa, for self employment and income generation. Rearing rabbits is increasingly becoming popular particularly among the youth and smallholder farmers as they require low capital investment, limited space and they multiply fast. In recent years there has been increased awareness of the advantages of rabbit meat production in Africa as a means to alleviate animal protein shortages and generate income, particularly in areas with high human population and limited agricultural land. Rabbits have enormous ability to utilize fibrous feed-stuffs which are unsuitable for humans.

    Rabbit’s feeds include grass, weeds, garden waste, kitchen waste and concentrates like rabbit pellets. Moreover the carcasses of rabbit have very high meat to bone ratio in comparison with other meat producing livestock. Rabbit manure is high quality fertilizer, while utilization of rabbit skins to make hand bags, shoes and hats creates employment and generates more income. Rabbit market exists mainly in major hotels.
    Californians white [which is white with black ears] and New Zealand white [which is entirely white with pink eyes] are the recommended pure rabbit breeds for meat production and upgrading of local African rabbits. These two breeds are fast growing and good meat producers as adult rabbits weighs between 4.5kgs and 5.5kgs.Flemish giant [which is grey to black] is a heavy late maturing rabbit breed weighing up to 6kgswhen fully grown. Local African rabbits are relatively small, usually white, hardy and well adapted to local conditions. Adults weigh about 2.5kgs and make good meat producers when crossed with Californians and New Zealand whites.

    Before bringing in the breeding stock a rabbit hutch should be constructed to protect the rabbits from predators. The breeding male or buck must have his own hutch from 3 months of age for good development. Breeding does or females should also be separated from 4 months of age. One buck is enough for every ten does and it’s recommended that several rabbit keepers share one buck at the beginning. The doe can be mated for the 1st time at the age of 5-6 months. Rabbit gestation period is about 31 days or one month.
    A good doe will kindle about four times a year giving about 6-7 kids each time. This makes a total of about 24 young ones per year for every breeding doe. The kids should be weaned at 5 weeks old and separated from the mother.
     Read also-http://yagrein.blogspot.com/2013/11/dairy-farming-in-kenya-has-become.ht

    Value chain approach to agriculture for rural development in Kenya

    Value chain approach to agriculture business refers to collaboration of the industry partners, to improve quality of agriculture products, increase agriculture systems efficiencies, or develop differentiated agriculture products, for achievement of a more rewarding position in the market place. This helps the partners to have competitive advantage. Value chain approach to agriculture is a recognized modern agriculture business strategy which is customer focused. The partners aim is to match products and services to the needs and demands of the end consumer. A common vision among the partners to serve the consumer, and similar motivation of profit maximization normally has a direct positive impact. This approach lays special emphasis on value creation and agriculture innovation. Value-chain approach to agriculture is crucial for linking small businesses to markets. Therefore it is invaluable for livelihood improvement and rural development particularly in Kenya. The approach challenges its partners to ‘think outside the box’ in order to add value to the products and services demanded by their customers.

    Therefore every partner focuses on value creation for the end consumer. The value chain partners in includes:-

    • Farmers or producers
    • Farm input dealers
    • Wholesalers
    • Distributors
    • Retailers
    • Exporters
    • Primary agro-processors
    • Secondary agro- processors
    • Food companies
    • Food service operators
    • Marketing boards
    • Agro-Industries
    • Finance institutions

    This  approach has several key benefits some of which are access to markets, improved information flow, Benefits of economies of scale, shared cost of risk of innovation, rewarding business relationships, competitive advantage, guaranteed markets, better prices and accelerated rate of innovation due to involvement of the end customers such as retailers and food service operators, who understands the market demands. This results in a chain which is very responsive to the market needs.
    Government Extension agents in Kenya deliver key value chain information to the players.

     communication between partners is vital and should be maintained resulting to:
    1.      Partner’s rapid response to change in technology or market needs.
    2.      Feed back from customers on problems for solutions to be worked out together.
    3.      Customer loyalty (trusted relationships)
    4.      Improvements in value chain activities because feedback is shared among partners.
    5.      Sales achievement, while customers receive the desired product.
    6.      Quality compliance of products and services to established
    7.   standard and Financial stability for value chain partners due to business success.
    More-http://yagrein.blogspot.com/p/what-are-youth-saying.html

     


    Wednesday, 9 November 2011

    Agricultural Carbon Sinks for climate change mitigation

    A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that gathers and stores carbon containing chemical compounds for an indefinite period. Agricultural carbon sinks also called agriculture carbon sequesters refers to agricultural farms, ranches and forests which absorb CO2, the most important global warming gas emitted by human activities. According to the greenhouse effect theory, the discharge into the atmosphere of large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other green house gases eventually warms the planet causing climate change. This is due to destruction of the ozone layer which whose function is to reduce the strength of the radiation or sun rays reaching the earth.
    Increased concentration of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has led to global warming. Average global temperatures increased by about 1 degree in the 20th century, contributing to the thawing of the permafrost, rising ocean levels and extreme weather according to scientist. Currently there is increased global concern of greenhouse gas emissions and scientists are researching on ways to limit the amount of CO2 entering the atmosphere; Therefore there is a global drive to limit CO2 emissions into the atmosphere through Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, in order to mitigate climate change. Carbon sequestration is the process through which agricultural and forestry practices remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and deposit it in a reservoir.Agriculture  Carbon sequestration activities can help to prevent global climate change by enhancing carbon storage in soils and trees, preserving existing soil and tree carbon, and by reducing emissions of CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

    In order to comprehend CO2 emissions from the soil, it is important to understand the carbon cycle in farm systems.  Normally CO2 in the atmosphere is absorbed by plants, and it is transformed into carbohydrates, cellulose and other sugars, during the process of photosynthesis.  The plant uses some of the carbon compounds to meet its energy needs and converts the rest back into CO2.  Some of the carbon remaining in the plant is then removed from the system when the plant is harvested; the rest ends up in the ground and is transformed into CO2 again by microbes in the soil.  This cycle is identical in all crop systems, but the quantities of CO2 involved vary depending on climate, soils and type of plant.  The cycle is slightly more complex on farms where animals are raised because instead of being removed from the system, a considerable amount of the plant matter is used as bedding or animal feed.  Then carbon is released in various ways such as removal by the animals in the form of CO2, removal in form of animal products (e.g. meat), and a significant amount is returned to the ground in the form of manure.

    The soil is a great carbon sink in form of organic matter and various farming practices enhance carbon sequestration in the soil. Therefore creation of a soil carbon sink calls for adoption of land management practices that increase the organic carbon content of the soil. This includes:-
    ·        Use of minimum tillage , common in conservation agriculture, which minimizes soil disturbance reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere ;
    ·        Cover cropping as temporary cover between seasons;
    ·        Crop rotation and intercropping;
    ·        Soil conservation using contour terraces or vegetative strips;
    ·        Rotation grazing and high-intensity short-term grazing which involves concentrating livestock in small paddocks for days at a time so they graze lightly but evenly which encourages roots to grow deeper into the soil;
    ·        Planting of shrubs and trees as windbreaks;
    ·        Use of farmyard and compost manure to increase soil organic matter;
    ·        Conversion of marginal farmland to perennial grasses or trees;
    Therefore Soil carbon sequestration is a good way of reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, and creation of a market for reducing carbon emissions would enable farmers to benefit economically from the process. Use of the above land management practices enables the soil to capture more CO2 than it emits; in effect CO2 is removed from the atmosphere and stored in the soil. As matter of fact, soil Carbon sequestration is a multi- purpose strategy with several co-benefits which include:-
    1.      Reduced atmospheric CO2 and climate change mitigation;
    2.      Improved agricultural productivity;
    3.      Food security improvement;
    4.      Increased farm income;
    5.      Improved water conservation;
    6.      Reduced soil erosion;
    7.      Increased farm profitability;
    8.      Environmental conservation;
    9.      Poverty reduction;

    Forests are carbon stores or carbon sinks when they are increasing in density or area. Growing trees sequester large amounts of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis. The carbon is used to build the plant and the oxygen is released back into the atmosphere. Forest fires and deforestation releases absorbed carbon back into the atmosphere, due to rapidly increased oxidation of soil organic carbon. 

    How to Grow Tomatoes in Kenya



    Tomatoes are among the most widely grown vegetables in the world. Tomatoes are used in salads, cooked as a vegetable or used in chutneys. Tomatoes are excellent sources of antioxidants, dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins. Fresh juices and its soup are becoming increasingly popular health-drinks across the world. Lycopene antioxidant present in tomatoes is scientifically found to be protective against cancers including colon, prostate, breast, endometrial, lung, and pancreatic tumors. Fresh tomatoes are a good source of vitamin C and potassium. This crop has high returns on investment (ROI), making it suitable for farming business. Good quality tomatoes which have been carefully handled command good market prices.
    Tomato salad

    Climatic requirements: Tomatoes grow well in warm conditions and they are fairly adaptable, but excessive humidity and temperatures reduce yields.
    Nursery: Choose a nursery site where potatoes, eggplants, peppers and cape gooseberries have not been grown for the last 3 years because of disease risk. A seed rate of 100-200g will give you seedlings enough to plant 1 hectare. Sow the seeds in drills 20 cm apart and 1cm deep. Thin out to 7cm apart latter in rows in order to raise strong seedlings.

    Manure: If soils are poor in organic matter, apply 10kg of well decomposed manure per square meter prior to transplanting to improve yields of tomatoes.
    Transplanting: This is carried out about one month after sowing seeds in the nursery, or when the plants are about 10-15cm high. Select only the healthy strong seedlings and plant at a spacing of 90cm x 60 cm. Transplant with soil attached to the roots on a cloudy day or late in the evening.
    Fertilizers: When transplanting, apply 200kg/ha of double super phosphate which is equivalent to 5g/planting hole. Mix the fertilizer with the soil thoroughly to avoid scorching, and when the plants are 25cm high Top dress with calcium ammonium nitrate at a rate of 100kg per hectare. An application of calcium ammonium nitrate at a rate of 200kg/ha 4 weeks later is beneficial.

    Mulching and weeding: Mulch with dry trash to conserve moisture and keep down soil temperatures. Keep the field free of weeds in order to reduce competition for water and nutrients.
    Pruning: Leave 2 main stems and pinch out the laterals as they grow every week. When 6-8 trusses have formed, pinch out the growing tip. Pruning will encourage growth of good sized marketable tomatoes. Remove the leaves close to the ground to prevent the entry of blight and other fungal diseases disease.
    Watering: water thoroughly 2-3 times every week.
    Staking: This is done by pushing firmly into the ground a 2m stake for each plant. Loosely tie the stem to the stake as the plant grows. Alternatively put a stout pole in the ground every 4 meters and run two wires at a height of 2m and 0.15m from the ground respectively. From the top wire run a string down for each plant to the bottom wire. The plants can be carefully twisted around the string as they grow.

      

    Harvesting: Fruit for fresh market should be slightly under ripe at harvesting time for it to
    Maturity period: Tomatoes mature in 3-4 months after transplanting. travel well to the market, while fruit for canning should be ripe.More-

    1. http://yagrein.blogspot.com/p/what-are-youth-saying.html
    2. http://yagrein.blogspot.com/2013/01/green-house-farming-technology.html

    Wednesday, 2 November 2011

    How to grow Papayas fruits trees (papaws) in Kenya

    Papayas fruits trees grow in tropical and subtropical climates and the plants do not tolerate freezing temperatures. Papayas fruits are delicious and grow throughout the year. These fruits are eaten alone or in salad without the skin. The papaws fruits are low in calories and high in potassium, vitamin A and c. Papayas enzymes promote digestion easing constipation and it is efficient in controlling colon infections and colon cancer. The plants are short living perennial trees whose economic life is about 4 years, although the plants have a lifespan of up to 10 years. This means that papaws need to be renewed every 4-5 years for maintenance of an economic orchard. There are three groups of papayas distinguishable by their flowers namely:-
    • Female plants –These fruit trees grows female flowers only
    • Male plants –These grows male flowers only.
    • Hermaphrodites trees –These grows both male and female flowers. Therefore allow 4 plants per hole and later thin out to single trees when flowers appear. You may need to consult your gardening advisor for identification of the flowers.
    Papayas require warm to hot climates for growth, and an altitude below 2100m above sea level, with annual rainfall of about 1000mm which is well distributed. The growing soils should be deep, well drained wit adequate moisture, but not waterlogged.
    Growing of Papayas is by seed which are extracted from sound papaw fruits and healthy trees. Seeds of Papayas may be direct sown or grown in a nursery first.

    Papayas can be directly sown at 6 seeds per hole, and then thinned to four plants per hole after germination and reducing the plants to only one per hole after flowering. In plants where male and female flowers are born on different trees, male trees are allowed at the rate of 25:100 females as pollinators.
    Prepare raised beds measuring 1m wide and any convenient length. Papaw seeds are sown at a depth of 1 cm in rows which are 15cm apart. Water the beds heavily before sowing the papaw seed and regularly thereafter. Young plants are ready for transferring to the field at a height of 10-15cm.plants are sown  at a spacing of 3m x 3m in holes measuring 60cm wide and 60cm deep. Mix 18 kg of well decomposed manure with 60 grams of double super phosphate fertilizer and fill the hole with this mixture plus the top  soil, and sow four papaw seedlings per hole which will be thinned out to one per hole at flowering. Firm the soil around the trees seedlings, then Top- dress with 40 grams of CAN fertilizer per hole.
    Apply 200g of CAN or ASN on individual papaws once a year at the beginning of rains.
    The Average yields of papaw trees are 30-40 tons of marketable fruits per hectare.
    The papayas are ready for harvesting when a yellow tinge grows on the blossom end of the fruits. Handle the papaw fruits with care as dropping or bruising lowers the keeping quality.

    Value addition
    Papaya Jam Making
    Ingredients
    1kg papayas pulp
    ½ cup lemon juice
    1kg sugar
    Procedure
    • Mix all the ingredients and boil together stirring occasionally until thick.
    • Test for readiness by Placing 1 teaspoon of Papayas jam onto a cold plate, once cooled push with a finger; if jam wrinkles setting point has been reached.
    • Pack the  papaw fruits jam  into hot sterilized jars then seal and cool the jam
    • Label the fruits jam and market
    • Growing papaw plants is a worthwhile trees farming activity