Thursday, 29 September 2011

Internet and Social Media for Agriculture kenya

Information and communication technology in agriculture is an emerging field in Kenya. This involves application of innovative ways to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for agriculture information sourcing and social media networking with collaborators and stakeholders in the agriculture value chain. ICT in Agriculture will facilitate dissemination of accurate, timely and relevant agriculture market and extension information as well as major government services to the community. This will create a good environment for competitive profitable agriculture, leading to self employment, food security, income generation and poverty reduction.

For the Internet to be an effective tool for rural farmers’ access to agriculture services three complementary things need to be in place namely, implementation of Government policies supportive to development of physical Internet access in the rural areas. Secondly the farmers  need support in learning how to use the Internet and interpret the information for application in agriculture. Farmers groups are an important resource to facilitate the adoption of e-agriculture internet innovation. Today the use of the Internet to source for agriculture information is a preserve of innovators in Africa. In view of this it will be more practical to measure the number of farmers with access to the Internet through community groups other than individual farmers’ approach. In rural Africa, community tele-centres are the realistic means of Internet access.

Majority of the Farmers in rural Kenya respond to information that has been tried and proven by the experience of innovators, in order to confidently make a decision to apply the same in their personalized situation. ICT will facilitate the farmers’ interaction with the innovators which will increase the speed of adoption of agriculture technologies. It is far much easier for the institutional developers of farmer’s information to broadcast a product to a mass audience, often derived from existing print material, than to contextualize it and enter into interpretive online conversations about it. Internet farmer’s education and online extension services will  speed up on-farm technology application due to interpretation of the information as happens during field days. Groups of farmers will find the advice on technology; help to interpret the advice as well as reference to other relevant service providers. A small number of specialized online extension workers could have a large impact on many groups. Facilitating online groups is a time-intensive, highly focused and skilled activity. online extension workers need different skills from face-to-face extension workers.

Online agriculture groups will be an important development which will help to make local sense of Internet services as they complement face-to-face groups. Both online extension services and online groups are important means of supporting the uptake of innovative farm practices. However, the potential for the use of the Internet to support farmers’ learning has only been partially realized in Africa. Mostly  farmers’ will require information designed for self-served clients working on their own. This calls for Information and Communication Technology skill development amongst farmers . Introduction of online facilitation skills into agriculture is necessary like in online education or commercial online communities.

Tuesday, 27 September 2011

Climate smart agriculture and climate change in Africa

Aerial yams
Significant reduction in crop yields is likely to be experienced in sub-Saharan Africa, in the face of population increase by 2050s. According to recently concluded African Ministerial Conference on Climate Smart Agriculture held in Johannesburg from 13th-14th September 2011, the farm yields might reduce by as much as 20 percent in the next four decades, unless Africa adopts climate smart agriculture.Climate smart agriculture includes verified practical techniques and approaches which can assist in achievement of food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation. 650 million people in Africa are dependent on rain-fed agriculture in environments which are vulnerable to inadequate rainfall, crop failure and environmental degradation. Without measures to adapt food productions to the current challenges caused by dynamic weather patterns and corresponding financial support, Africa’s poverty alleviation and food security goals cannot be achieved. Feeding Africa and the world is one of the major challenges today.

FAO in collaboration with African leaders are working to implement climate smart approach to agriculture, in order to increase agricultural productivity. Some of the measures which can be employed include proven practical techniques such as development and promotion of drought resistant crop varieties, cover cropping, mulching, agro-forestry, improved grazing management, zero or minimum tillage, improved water management and increased soil organic matter. Consequently soil water-holding capacity increases and yields are made more resilient to climate change in addition to realization of increased stock of carbon on farmland.
Climate change adaptation therefore refers to a response to the changing climate, and implementation of policies and actions to minimize the predicted impacts of climate change, while climate change Mitigation refers to human intervention to reduce emission or increase the sinks of greenhouse gases especially carbon which is the major greenhouse gas. 

To address these problems, MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN AGRICULTURE [MICCA] program is carrying out four pilot projects in Kenya, Tanzania, Ecuador, and Viet Nam which are aimed at showing results on the ground in order to persuade farmers, national policy-makers, international organizations and donors to make climate-smart agriculture a priority today. These projects will provide scientific evidence that climate-smart agricultural practices can mitigate climate change, improve farmers’ lives and improve local communities’ ability to adapt to climate change. MICCA’s pilot projects are a partnership with national and international development partners within the framework of larger agricultural development projects.

Sunday, 25 September 2011

How to Grow Butternut Squash

Butternut squash growing is an excellent choice for small scale young farmers in Kenya. It is a simple task which beginners in farming can cope with. Read this article for basic understanding of cultivation of this crop.Butternut squash which originated from Mexico has a sweet nutty taste. It is rich in vitamin A, potassium and vitamin C.The requirements for growth are fertile well drained soils and sunlight at least 6 hours daily. Apply compost or organic manure, before planting. Hybrid seeds should be planted 2.5 cm deep, with a spacing of 90 cm from one row to another and 45cm from plant to plant. Watering must be done moderately, soon after sowing then, once in every two to three days until the seeds germinate. Seed germination takes place after 7-10 days. Keep the field free of weeds throughout the growing period.
Pest and disease control is an important aspect of butternut squash production. These plants are prone to various pests and diseases. In case you notice signs of pests and diseases, contact agriculture extension officer, for correct technical advice. There are many pesticides in the market including organic pesticides. If you need to apply pesticides or other such products, do it in the evening, to avoid interfering with bees which are important for pollination. Butternut squash produce separate male and female flowers on the same plant and therefore they require insects for cross-pollination.Butternut squash maturity period is between 75 and 120 days after germination. Mature butternut squash are beige to light tan color with shriveling drying stems and extremely hard skin. Butternut squash with green color still on it is not yet mature. Harvest ripe fruits by cutting the stems about 2.5 cm up from the fruit. Don’t handle the harvested fruit by the stem, as the stem cannot bear the weight. Butternut Squash has a long storage life of up to 3 months and they should be mature and free from injury and decay when stored. They should be kept dry and provided with good air circulationButternut squash has market value and demand both in Kenya and abroad. You can sell to market traders from Nairobi and other major towns. Youth groups can link their members with exporters’ to by-pass middlemen for better returns.

How to use butternut squash
Butternut squash has a pale brown-orange skin and a deep, orange flesh. The wonderfully moist flesh has a sweet, nutty flavor and a slightly fibrous firm texture. Butternut squash can be roasted whole and the cooked flesh scooped out afterwards or it can be boiled. Butternut squash can be included in soups .Fresh sage flavoring particularly goes well with butternut squash recipes. Mashed butternut squash makes a tasty side dish to serve with chicken, beef or lamb. Flavor the mash with a little ground nutmeg, cinnamon or cumin to help bring out the sweetness. Butternut squash can also be pureed to make baby food.

Butternut Soup recipe

Butternut squash is naturally sweet and it makes a delicious soup which is great to serve with roast beef, chicken, lamb or slices of bread.


2 medium butternuts
2 medium Irish potatoes
2 medium onions
50g butter/margarine [ 4 tablespoons]
7 ml medium curry powder ([ ¼ teaspoon-optional]
40 g corn flour [4 Tablespoons]
Pinch of ground nutmeg[optional]
4 medium sized tomatoes
750 ml boiling water [3 cups]
500 ml milk [2 cups]
7 ml salt [1 ½ teaspoon]


Peel the butternut squash, scoop out seed and dice the butternuts. Peel and chop the Irish potatoes, Peel the onions and tomatoes and chop roughly. Cook lightly the chopped onions and tomatoes in the butter/margarine. Add the curry powder and fry the mixture lightly. Add the butternut and potatoes and cook the mixture for a while. Add the flour and nutmeg and stir-fry lightly.

Add the water and the milk, salt, to the butternut mixture. Boil, with the lid on, over moderate heat soft stirring the mixture occasionally then Puree or blend until smooth. Serve the soup hot. Each bowl of soup may be garnished with finely chopped parsley.
Makes 2 liters [8 cups] of soup

Mashed butternut squash
2 medium butternuts
6 medium Irish potatoes
2 cloves garlic
Pinch of nutmeg [optional]
20 g butter/margarine [2 tablespoons]

Halve the squash and peel off the skin using a sharp knife, scoop out the seeds, then cut the flesh into even-sized chunks. Peel the potatoes and wash together with butternut chunks.
Bring 1 inch of salted water to the boil in a large pot; add prepared squash chunks, potatoes and garlic and steam for 15-20 minutes or until tender, adding more water to the pan if necessary. Mash the vegetables till fairly smooth. Add ground nutmeg and margarine. Serve hot with beef, chicken or lamb. More-

Friday, 23 September 2011

Conservation agriculture technology for food security in Kenya

Conservation agriculture technology is a farming practice being piloted in Kenya by agriculture development agencies.The method contributes to sustainable agricultural production and environmental conservation, by maintaining a permanent or semi-permanent organic soil cover; through the use of mulches or cover crops, employment of Zero or minimum tillage and crop rotation. Weed control is done using herbicides or shallow cultivation resulting to minimal soil disturbance, water and nutrients retention. Some of the benefits of conservation agriculture technology are reduced labor and farm-power requirements, improved soil fertility, crop yields increase over time compared to conventional farming, livelihood improvement, decreased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and reduction of climate change.

Small scale farmers in Kenya face numerous challenges, which call for simultaneous increase of farm production and natural resource preservation. Land for farming in most parts of Kenya is scarce due to high population density.  Over the years intensive farming have been practiced in most parts of Kenya resulting to land degradation, decreased farm yields and increased poverty. Rain-fed subsistence farming is the main source of livelihood for majority of the rural people in Kenya. In the recent years this livelihood strategy has become unreliable due to climate change, prevalent droughts and seasonality of the rains; leading to crop failure, low food production and increased poverty. Oblivious of the danger farmers continue to practice intensive tillage technologies which have been known to cause soil degradation. Therefore there is urgent need for introduction of conservation agriculture technology in order to counteract the situation.

The youth are the future of farming industry in Kenya. They should therefore take advantage of every opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills in conservation agriculture technology. In addition they should spearhead implementation of this innovation in their communities. This will ultimately influence whole communities to practice conversation agriculture technology, for livelihood improvement, climate change adaptation and mitigation. Furthermore agricultural soil is a limited and precious resource whose irreversible degradation ruins the main asset of current farmers and reduces the farming opportunities for the future generation

The Kenya Government in collaboration with its stakeholders has a pilot conservation agriculture technology project in Laikipia district. The project started in the year 2006 as a result of resolutions made during the third world congress on conservation agriculture technology which took place in Nairobi Kenya in October 2005.The event was organized by African Conservation Tillage Network in collaboration with the government of the republic of kenya and the Kenya CA Tillage Network. The fourth world congress was held in New Delhi India in February 2009 while  the 5th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture technology was held in Brisbane, Australia in September 2011.
Conservation agriculture technology acknowledges the importance of creating and maintaining a healthy soil and integrates various approaches to the management of weeds, pests, diseases, and plant nutrients. adoption of conservation agriculture technology will help crops adapt to changing climatic conditions and ensure harvest despite unreliable rainfall. This is an innovation whose time has come and cannot be stopped.

Wednesday, 21 September 2011

Challenges Faced by Kenyan Youth in Agriculture

Challenge 1: No job opportunity in agricultural extension for young graduates
The Youth hardly find jobs or work-based placement in agricultural extension in Kenya. The government of the republic of Kenya is the main provider and regulator of agricultural extension services, and the recruitment of new officers is done after long periods since .This situation was precipitated by the structural adjustment program in the 90s which implemented civil service retrenchment to reduce the government employees with an aim of improving the management of the countries economy. However the government recently reberelized extension services and private practice is being promoted through a government program known as private sector development in agriculture (PSDA) creating opportunities for the young people, but again the private extension providers are ill equipped as the youth discouraged by the earlier situation had abandoned training in agricultural courses in preference to other specializations especially business courses. Agriculture value chain development and empowerment trainings are currently being carried out by the ministry of agriculture under the National Agriculture and livestock extension program phase out. The present situation is encouraging as it shows there is light at the end of the tunnel. young professionals will in future be able to register their own agriculture extension Private Firms.

Challenge 2: Training of agricultural Extension Officers not done at a regular basis
Research extension Linkages are weak and it was found that refresher training courses for the extension officers are not held on a regular basis, but as and when required or when there are some training opportunities (e.g. when there is an expert in a specific field in the country). As a result the innovative farmers get information on new agriculture technologies before the extension officers.

Challenge 3: Lack of Effective agricultural Extension Services
The main factor preventing the extension officers from working effectively is that they are not well facilitated and their offices are poorly equipped. Agriculture extension is basically the process of transferring agricultural knowledge to the farmers and getting feedback. Communication is part and parcel of the extension process. dissemination of essential information is central to the success of extension. However, most frontline government extension officers have no access to basic information and communication technologies such as computers and are therefore lagging behind times. Youth in agriculture find the officers outdated and cannot identify with them. Officers are not well remunerated and they lack enthusiasm and the motivation required due to poor salaries. Extension officer farmer’s ratio in Kenya has changed from 1:750 in the 90s to 1:1200 currently. This often means that extensions officers are unable to serve their clients effectively.

Challenge 4: Lack of Training in modern agricultural technology
large sections of the youth are untrained and modern agriculture requires being knowledge based. Lack of information technology systems has largely contributed to this situation as the youth are not in favour of traditional extension training methodologies like field days.

Challenge 5: Lack of agricultural Resources
Majority of the youth own no land which is the principal resource in agricultural production. Limited control of the main factor of production in agriculture places the youth at the disadvantage of having to wait for the interventions of adults to become integrally involved in agricultural pursuits

Challenge 6: Negative Image of Agriculture
Youth have a negative attitude towards agriculture due to lack of role models and mentors. The image created around agricultural pursuits as a means of livelihood is not encouraging as only elderly people are involved while the youth are absent in the value chain. These generally lead to involvement of the youth in activities that are popular and perceived to be socially acceptable. The negative stigma of pursuing agriculture as a career influences youth to stay away from it.

Monday, 19 September 2011

Agriculture Value Chains and Agricultural Policy

Agriculture value chain refers to a full range of activities which an agricultural product or service passes through from production to consumption. The value chain analysis is a concept from business management that was first described and popularized by Michael Porter in his 1985 best-seller, Competitive Advantage which means Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance. This commercial chain consists of activities which aim at producing value added products or services; where value addition refers to improving the worth of your product or service in the market in order to increase the profit margin. Value chain approach to agriculture therefore gives room to youth creativity and agriculture entrepreneurship development. The activities that comprises a value chain can be contained in a single firm or divided among different firms. Value Chain Development aims to improve access to markets and increase productive efficiency, ensuring that all actors including youth farmers benefit from these value chains. Value-chain approaches are a vehicle for linking small businesses to markets, and therefore are essential for livelihood improvement and economic development
Agriculture value chain consists of four parts namely
  • Upstream-This includes large scale farmers, small scale farmers and agricultural inputs dealers
  • Supply chain- supply chains consists of primary  agro-processors, distributors, wholesalers, and retailers
  • Mid stream- secondary processors e.g. making the product which takes less time to prepare for consumption
  • Downstream-An  example of players in this category are private label manufacturers
Value chain approach in agriculture is unique as it uses a participatory, stakeholder-driven approach to take advantage of opportunities for investment and growth in agriculture industry which has high levels of micro and small enterprise involvement particularly in Africa. Commercial agriculture and agribusiness projects should seriously focus on value chain development, which calls for mobilization of all players to work as partners from the beginning of promoting or strengthening an agricultural commodity, to ensure a common agreement on how to sustain the commodity.
A comprehensive government policy support is mandatory for a successful agriculture value chain. African farmers for a long time have been denied this kind of support resulting in stagnation of the agriculture sector and increased rural poverty. These policies of neglect stand in sharp contrast to those of developed nations, which provide farmers with a strong foundation of government policy support. The competitiveness of agribusiness not only depends on the functioning of players within a cluster, but most importantly, on the entire chain at the national and global level. This means agribusiness in developing countries needs to take globalization into account in order to improve competitiveness.For more information: Read


Saturday, 17 September 2011

ICT in Agriculture

Growing population
One of the main challenges that the agricultural sector often faces is the need to increase productions so as to provide adequate food to an overgrowing population considering the high rate at which natural resources are decreasing. The agricultural sector is now faced with more water shortages, loss of soil fertility, climate change and loss of fertile agricultural lands to urbanization. Nonetheless, the demand for high quality products continues to increase and has created a means for individuals living in rural areas to enhance their livelihoods.  However in order to take advantage of the new opportunities, farmers must comply with solid quality standards and regulations when producing and handling all kind of agricultural produce. For this reason, there is need for additional technological advances that will promote compliance.

The Role of ICT in Rural Agricultural industry
The role of ICT in rural agriculture and food security has continued to receive increase recognition following its endorsement at the World Summit on the Information society (WSIS) 2003-2005. The extent of ICT use in agriculture ranges from the use of computer applications, the internet, geographical information systems, cell phones as well as mainstream media such as radio, TV and newspapers. Although the concept of ICT in agriculture is relatively new in rural Africa, there is growing evidence of its contribution to agricultural development and poverty alleviation.

Enhancing agricultural Production through ICT
One of the main contributions that ICT has made to rural agriculture is the increase in efficiency and sustainability of small scale farms. Small scale farming often faces lots of challenges including poor soils, drought, soil erosion and pests. By receiving information regarding pest and disease control especially through early warning systems, new and improved crop varieties and new regulations regarding pest control, small scale farmers can considerably increase their production. 

Improving agricultural Market Access through ICT
Access to up-to-date market information regarding commodity prices, prices of farm inputs and consumer trends can have a considerable impact on the livelihoods of small scale farmers by increasing their bargaining power. Such information makes it possible for farmers to make informed decisions regarding future crops and commodities. Farmers are able to make decisions on the best time and place to sell and buy goods.  In many countries, the demand for such information has led to the creation of simple websites that attempt to match supply and demand of agricultural produce thereby creating more complex agricultural trade systems.

Price information is usually collected from the marketplace and stored in a central database where farmers can access it either online or through information centers. So as to reach a wider audience, the information may be broadcast via rural radio, TV and cell phones. However, a lot of work goes into maintain such systems and such work must continue if these systems are to be sustainable.

Capacity Building and Empowerment through ICT
ICT can be used to empower communities and farmers organizations so that they are able to hold their ground when negotiating for better input and output prices, land claims, resource rights and infrastructure development. In addition, ICT creates opportunities for rural farmers to interact with other stakeholder within the agricultural industry thereby reducing social isolation.

Tuesday, 13 September 2011

Multi-storey Vegetable Gardens for Food security in Kenya

Multi-storey gardening is an innovative and exciting technology for year round vegetable gardening in Kenya. Multi-storey gardens technology is suitable for urban gardening in Kenya where land for farming has greatly reduced due to urbanization. Gardening is an important human activity in Africa and many parts of the world. Multi-storey gardens refer to bag gardens reputable for utilizing minimal land and water. Multi-storey gardening requires little technical and financial support. These bag gardens are also suitable for dry, non fertile areas where soils are not suitable for conventional gardening, areas with water scarcity.

This micro-gardening concept being a low input activity is ideal for child headed households, elderly headed households and families of people living with HIV/AIDS, where labor and other resources are scarce. Multi-storey gardens technology has been used successfully in Kenya to grow green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, cabbages, carrots, tubers and indigenous vegetables, in the refugee camps with the help of donor agencies. Multi-storey gardens lead to development of self reliance in vegetables for nutrition and food security in the vulnerable households. This gardening technology has also been used in schools all over the world for providing vegetables to school feeding programs and teaching science and nutrition.

Setting up Multi storey Gardens  
Materials required for multi-storey gardening include empty cereal bag or animal feed bag, one empty oil can or 6”PVC pipe with holes, 2buckets small stones, 6 buckets soil, 6 buckets manure, seeds, adequate water to irrigate the bag garden and gardening tools. Follow the procedure below to set up the garden.  
  1. Mix the soil and well decomposed manure thoroughly.
  2. Cut out the bottom of the oil can and make holes on the sides.
  3. Fold back the bag and fill the bottom 15cm with small stones.
  4. Place the can on top of the small stones in the centre of the bag.
  5. Fill the oil can with small stones
  6. Fill the area between the oil can and the bag with the soil-manure mixture up to the can level.
  7. Pull up the can to the level of the soil compost mixture with a tilting motion.
Repeat steps 5, 6 and 7 until the bag is full and a central core of stones is formed leaving the tin at the top of the bag garden. Pour water into the tin through the central core till the soil is soaked.

Watch a Video on the Preparation of Multi-storey Gardens
Sow the vegetable seeds in the nursery at the top of the bag, and water regularly for about 3-4 weeks. Partial shading should be done where the climate is harshly hot. When seedlings are ready for transplanting, make holes on the sides of the bag with a sharpened stick, at a spacing of 30cm from row to row and 23cm from plant to plant in a staggered fashion. Each bag is watered twice daily with 5 litres of water each time for the first 2weeks, then 2-3 times a week. The Water for irrigation is poured into the tin at the top centre of the bag, going down the central core, to the end of the bag irrigating all the plants. Green leafy vegetables grown in a multi storey garden mature within 30 days. 

Harvesting in multi-storey gardens is done 2-3 times a week. Five bag gardens will produce enough vegetables for family consumption and income generation.NB: Similar to the Multi-Storey Gardens, is the Vertical Grow Pipe innovative gardening technology which was introduced during 2010 World Food Day Celebrations at the University of the West Indies. Multi-storey gardening practice is a breakthrough to ensure year round supply of fresh vegetables for dietary diversity and income generation.For more information read

Sunday, 11 September 2011

Youth and Climate Change for livelihood sustainability

A large percentage of the world’s population today comprises of young people with about 2.2 billion people being less than 18 years old. In this era of global climate change, 85% of these 2.2 billion young people are a resource that can be used to change the society towards reduction of climate change for sustainability. Furthermore, the young people can play a key role in dealing with all the difficulties that are facing humanity.

One thing that sets the young people apart from the rest of the population is their enthusiasm, imagination, talent and energy. The young people are more likely to get involved in local actions, play the role of effective communicators within their communities and participate in international actions against climate change and un-sustainability. For this reason FAO and other international organizations have been working together to come up with activities and mechanisms that enhance awareness, and access to relevant knowledge and information among the youth. The main aim of these efforts is to encourage participation of young people in actions relating to environmental sustainability and social development issues such as global warming.

The Red Cross and Red Crescent has for a long time been on the forefront in involving the young people in dealing with the humanitarian consequences of global warming for sustainability.  For instance in 2009, the Red Cross organized the Youth on the Move convention in Solferino which had climate change as one of the main themes. During the convention, a large number of youth and teenagers received training from climate change experts encouraging livelihoods sustainability. Since the conclusion of this convention, there has been evidence of increased youth involvement in activities relating to climate change and sustainability.

In strategy 2020, the Red Cross reaffirms that it is committed to address climate change impacts on human livelihoods especially the young people who make up the larger proportion of the population and the hope of tomorrow. Strategic aim of strategy 2020 is geared towards ensuring that the public adopts an environmentally sustainable lifestyle. This will lead to reduction of green house gases emissions. Similarly, in Strategy 2020, the IFRC reaffirms its commitment to ensuring that youth continue to volunteer and develop strong Red Cross and Red Crescent societies.  This will build a strong culture of voluntary service among the youth encouraging sustainability and youth participation in community and national affairs.

Friday, 9 September 2011

Basic Food security for poverty reduction & sustainable development in kenya

Food security exists when there are adequate, accessible, affordable, nutritious and safe provisions, for all people at all times, to maintain a healthy and active life. Food security for sustainable development has three pillars which are availability, access and use according to knowledge of basic nutrition. Several political promises to ensure food security for sustainable development have been made by various national leaders. On the contrary the number of starving incidence recur frequently due to lack of concrete action. The number of hungry people globally also increased from 824 million in 1990, [the ‘MDG’ baseline year] to 925 million in 2010.The world population is expected increase to 9 billion by 2050. This calls for urgent prioritization of provisions issues . The right to provisions is a fundamental right of everyone, 'to be free from hunger' according to provisions of article 11 of the International Convent on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, the branch of international law inspired by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Climbing beans
Therefore the National government has an obligation to establish non-discriminatory and non-political policy on food security for sustainable development. People exposed to hunger worldwide are likely to  reach one billion by the end of 2011.Global cereal demand is expected to rise by 1 billion tons over the next four decades which is a fore warning that the time of low provisions prices is over. Consequently there is need to improve world agricultural productivity by 70% come 2050.This should be done with sound environmental management practices in mind for sustainable development and improvement of provisions. One of the best methods to ensure national food security in Kenya is innovation. This calls for support for implementation of new ideas, new information, and new technologies for sustainable development. Despite marvelous benefits of investment in agriculture in the last 25 years, wealthy countries have reduced the budget for international agriculture at an alarming rate whereas in fact the budget needs to be increased.

The current climate change has increased pressure on provisions and greatly challenges sustainable development. Global warming is progressively reducing agricultural production, undermining food security in Kenya and many developing countries. Policies that could help farmers adapt to changing climate include irrigated agriculture, agricultural research, flood control and controlling human resettlement. The Government should investment in small scale farmers and herders and empower the most vulnerable people to take charge of their food security. This is cheaper than giving provisions and enhances sustainable development.